Andrea Pollock on Wine

 

The Screw-top Revolution:

Helping or hurting the wine service experience

Written by Andrea Pollock
Sunday, November 30th, 2008



Executive Summary

            The cork has long been the traditional wine closure, but in recent years the problems with cork have been the reason for new research and development of alternative closures.  Amongst the contenders, the screw-top is reigning superior and beginning to take over a majority of bottles; some critics estimate that screw-tops will outnumber corks within 10 years.  As this revolutions takes place are any of us aware how this is affecting the wine service experience?

            By understanding the consumer preferences and the direction of the industry we can make suggestions about the strategic alternatives that will present themselves to the manufacturers (wineries) and the end users (restaurants and individuals at home).  As we discuss, the ripple effects of the screw-top will become visible: in customer spending habits and in the way retailers begin to tailor and market their product.

            The screw-top wine changes the service experience for customers at home and in restaurant dining.  The cork closure engages the consumer with a larger experience.  Both closures have their strengths and weaknesses – making screw-tops more suitable to drink now style wines ad corks more suitable for wines that have the potential to age. 

            Inevitably this will lead to changes in the wine environment: the Millennial generation (an already strong consumer group) are more accepting of alternative packaging, cork closure offerings will continue to disappear, at the same time corks will become a signal of a premium and ageable wine and restaurants will begin to tweak their wine offerings – tailoring their menus towards the type of wine experience their customers expect.

 

Introduction

            The screw-top closure on wines is abundant these days, while many years ago corks monopolized the neck of the world’s wine bottles.  This shift has taken place in a relatively short period of time and has forced many consumers to expect something very different from their wine experience.  With the screw-top; “whether this tableside performance -- so banal compared with the artful choreography of the corkscrew -- is a sign of the cultural apocalypse is hard to say.  But a business revolution does seem to be under way” (Karl, 2007).

As the shift to screw-top closures takes place are any of us aware how this is affecting the wine service experience?           

 

Comparing Corks and Screw-tops

            The cork is the traditional wine closure, they are estimated to have been used since the 17th century, when glass bottles were first developed and used to store wine (Shea, 2008).  Unfortunately, the cork tree is a very over-consumed resource coming to extinction – it is simply over farmed and not able to sustain the production levels of the world demand.  “About seventeen billion bottles of wine are produced each year, and natural cork production just cannot meet that demand(Professor’s House, 2007).  It takes 25 years for a cork tree to be ready for harvest for the first time and can only be harvested once every 9 years.  These facts are nothing new, the wine industry has been aware of the problem for years and the costs of cork continue to rise.  Many producers have already shifted to alternative closures in place of cork (Hochstein, 1992). 

“For a couple of hundred years, winemakers and wine drinkers understood that the wine in a small percentage of bottles -- as much as 3% to 5% -- would suffer from the contamination of bad corks (and, sometimes, bad barrels). The culprit was a chemical called tricholoanisole, or TCA.  It caused wine to become ‘corked’” (Karl, 2007) – adding a chlorine or rotten egg smell to the bottle although still safe to consume. 

In light of this, what are the benefits of cork?  We must cling to it for some reason besides tradition.  The cork does have some properties that can’t be duplicated with other closures.  It is semi-permeable and allows a micro transfer of air in and out of the bottle; this is extremely significant and beneficial to wines that have aging potential.  The oxygen transfer can help a wine mature by softening tannins and changing the chemical composition of the wine integrating the fruit (Beavers, 2008).

            On the other hand, screw-tops or Stelvin closures (Stelvin is an Alcan brand, they manufacture the majority of all screw-tops in North America) create a perfect seal, there is no oxygen exchange taking place.  This is very effective in the short-term: A study conducted by the Australian Wine Institute in 2001 showed that “after 20 months, wine sealed with the screw caps retained the greatest concentration of sulfur dioxide and had the slowest rate of browning”.  This study compared the ageability and quality of wines from many different alternative closures (rubber corks, foam-plastic composites and screw-tops) to determine which type would prevail; the screw-top closure was the most successful.  The study also found that “on the downside, a rubberlike aroma developed after 18 months in the cap-sealed wine” (Hutchcraft, 2001).  Screw-top wines can’t contaminate a wine with TCA. 

            Yet even with the growing use of screw-top wines “consumers associate Screw-top closures with poorer quality wine.  This may be based on historical industry practice of using Screw-top closure on cheap inferior wine and cork for premium wines” (Blakeman, 2006).  The Niagara Culinary Institute came to some interesting conclusions with their research: “although consumers still moderately believe screw-top closures are inferior to cork, the majority of participants were unbiased during the blind tasting with a strong group in support of screw-top closures.  Overall the results were equally divided indicating there is no preference between cork closed wine and a screw cap closed wine.  The results of this study conclude that there is no basis or support for the hypothesis that Screw-top closures are not suitable for premium wines” (Blakeman, 2006).

            Screw-top wines are particularly well suited to drink now style wines, wines that are meant to be consumed within 18 months of bottling.  This style of wine represents upwards of 90% of all wines being produced worldwide (Anonymous, 1999).  Most wines have very little aging potential; they do not have the tannin structure base that would allow them to cellar well over time.  For wines that do have that potential to age, the slight oxidation that takes place over time with corks helps them to reach maturity.

 

The Growing Service of Wine

            Consumption of wine has been on the rise for years; “the 10th global study of current trends in the International Wine and Spirits Market and Outlook to 2010 shows that global wine production reached 3.1 billion cases in 2005 and is forecast to rise to 3.2 billion cases by 2010” (Bon-wine, 2005).  Looking closer to home, some interesting information about different generations of consumers can help us guess at the direction of other aspects of wine demand.  Jack Heeger discusses the Wine Market Council reports recent findings: “For 13 consecutive years, wine consumption in the United States has increased......much of the increase can be attributed to the Millennial generation.  Millennials, those between ages 13 and 30, make up about 26 percent of the population and account for about 70 million people.  Core drinkers account for 17.4 percent of the total population, and marginal drinkers compose 17 percent, the first time, the report said, that core drinkers outnumber marginal drinkers. That’s important, because core drinkers, who account for 92 percent of the volume of all wine consumed, are drinking more often and there are more of them” (Heeger, 2007).

            Observations of millennial consumers are a hot topic, “the statistics tell the story.  Boomer wine drinkers play it safe; surveys indicate that 4 out of every 10 bottles they buy represent "favorite" wines.  This younger group takes risks, relying on "favorite" wines for just 1 in 10 of their wine purchases.  The Millennials' openness to new packaging has been a boon for screw caps as well as for boxed wines and other nonglass containers” (Brown, 2008).  The growing consumption and acceptance of screw-tops by a strong, young consumer group points the direction that the industry is heading.  Some of the Millennial group has yet to reach the legal drinking age, the introduction of these consumers to the world of wine will be in an environment more familiar with and dominated by alternative closures to cork.

Within any industry the level of service will differ based on the brand positioning of a company.  This applies to both the brand positioning of the product by the manufacturer (winery) and the service offering by restaurants.  In these two areas there is the most impact on the actual service of wine from an experience standpoint.

 




Wine at Home

            We can look at how the screw-top wine can influence the wine service experience for consumers at home. 

            For years consumers spent millions on inventive corkscrew gadgets, all this in an effort to add ease to their experience of opening the bottle.  More recent innovations show the evolutionary pattern of decreased human involvement, evolution toward the increased use of fields and toward the micro-level by replacing the function of manually removing a cork with the muscles of your arm with nitrogen gas” (Clarke, 2002).  Welcome the entrance of the screw-top wine – worry free and much easier to open – no corkscrew required.  Simply twist and serve is all it takes to enjoy these wines.  This epiphany in the industry has lead to a number of wines being released recently, with screw-tops.  It takes nerve for these companies to buck the public perception of screw caps (a perception that ironically the fine wine industry spent years cultivating).  A trip to your favorite wine store will yield several wine selections, with prices that range from below $10 to over $20, that sport the new twist off enclosures” (Reiss, 2005).  “Influential wine critic Robert M. Parker Jr. has predicted that by 2015 more wines will be opened with the twist of a wrist than the pull of a cork.  New Zealand already closes more than 80% of its wines with screw caps” (Kapnick, 2006).

            Let’s face it, screw-top wines are easy and convenient, but they are also a much different wine drinking experience; these aren’t the best wines for cellaring either.  Core drinkers account for the real volume of consumption overall, and these are also the enthusiasts who build cellars and buy wine to store.  The short life span of screw-top wines doesn’t make them prime cellaring candidates, they don’t need to be stored on their side (no cork to keep moist) and they don’t benefit from the humidity control of cellars either.  For cellaring purposes, enthusiasts will want a cork closure and store limited amounts of screw-top wine for everyday drinking.

            One expert suggests “allocating 85% of his inventory to everyday and weekend wines and 15% for fine and rare wines” (Ansbacher, 2006).  This certainly spells the end to elaborate wine cellars, since there simply won’t be enough cork sealed wine to fill them – cellars will be smaller and kept for rare vintages and long-term aging.  These wines require cellaring that can control humidity and “most importantly, the absence of sunlight and heat” (Nalley, 2005); to keep the effects of these pressures stable more precise and professional equipment will be necessary to protect the investment of fine wines.

 

Effects on Restaurant Dining

            The table service of wine in restaurants is where the service experience changes the most.  We can compare a service blueprint for the service of screw-top wine and cork closure wine, see pages 15 & 16 of this report.  Comparing the blueprints you can see how there are fewer steps to service and the customer involvement decreases with the screw-top wines.

The added steps of the cork presentation in restaurant service are considered by some to be unnecessary.  Ironically the Wine Council of Ontario says in a 2007 article about restaurant dining that “the ritual of examining the cork is no longer observed or recommended”.  But, examining the cork of a bottle of wine “can give you a premonition of what is to come.  If it smells nasty, then you at least want to be careful before tasting.  If it looks immaculate, then you are justified in feeling more optimistic.” (Evans & LeLarge, 2006).  Even a bad wine can have an immaculate cork, because TCA contamination in not visible.  A bleeding cork can be the sign of a turned wine, where too much oxygen transfer has taken place.

The cork service blueprint is also missing a potential added step to service, the decanting process – where the wine is poured “from its bottle into some other container: a carafe, a decanter, even a water jug.  Wines are decanted to get rid of sediment, the organic matter that naturally precipitates from the wine as it matures. The wines that throw the most sediment are mature, full-bodied red wines and vintage port” (MacLean, 2008).  In this way decanting lends itself to cork closure wines versus screw-tops.  Sediments aren’t likely to be present in young style wines, and screw-top wines aren’t great candidates for wines with aging potential since the perfect seal doesn’t allow oxygen transfer for maturation.

The movement to screw-top wine reduces the service experience of a wine presentation – would this translate into a lower tip or a less enjoyable dining experience? – That has to be proven.  Chefs have known for centuries, a little bit of wine helps perk up the flavor of many dishes” (Hall, 2000).  The wine from screw-tops or corks will taste just as good, so it shouldn’t have an impact on the dining perception.  But certainly poor wine service can cast a negative feeling over a meal; Gaiter and Brecher discuss the wine service in the casual dining segment at the 10 major chain concepts in the US.  “Only Friday's and Olive Garden opened the bottles at our table.  Others advised us the bottles would be opened at the bar.  Our waiters and waitresses -- who, after all, were barely drinking age themselves -- were generally clueless but sweet” (Gaiter & Brecher, 2002). 

As Gaiter and Brecher point out “millions of people regularly dine at the 10 top "dinnerhouse" chains.  Dinnerhouse chains, and casual restaurants in general, are doing well right now - They are the growth engine in the restaurant industry”.  Wine sales are generally growing year after year in this segment accounting for upwards of 20% of beverage sales, compared with 4-6% a decade ago.  “On-premise restaurant wine sales continued to grow in 2007, but the rate of growth fell with the economy beginning in August 2007, according to two studies in Restaurant Wine magazine. Until then, sales were booming” (Haverkorn, 2008).  Unfortunately this industry plagued with young, transient staff, with little interest or knowledge of wines.  Servicing the growing demand for wine by customers can be a challenge for young, non-wine drinkers – especially when placed under the pressure to open wines closed with a cork.

 

 

Conclusions

For Wine Drinkers at Home

  • Familiarity and increased offering of products in the screw-top closure will force growing acceptance of a new wine experience by Millennials and Baby Boomer groups.  As favorite premium brands move to a Stelvin closure, even the wine ‘snobs’ of days past will begin to give in.  Radically changing perceptions of consumers that a screw-top closure is for cheap, inferior wine.
  • Changes to the cellaring habits of the end-use consumer; less space dedicated to wine storage and smaller more frequent purchases at wine retailers to retrieve everyday wines to drink.  The added time spent in the retail environment, with all the advertisements and marketing ploys will probably lead to increased product trials and brand switching by consumers.

For Restaurateurs

  • Restaurateurs could organize their wine menu with two sections: the first listing the screw-top offerings, the second listing cork closure wines.  This passes the onus of the service expectation to the customer – the other steps of service remain the same and the meal will be enjoyed in the same manner, but it is the customer who can choose to purchase the cork closure wine experience.
  • In the casual dining segment, large chain operations may benefit from moving towards screw-tops, saving serving time and reducing the knowledge requirement for service staff.  The screw-tops present a more simplified service offering for the more transient younger service staff.  This helps with consistency issues as well, no ‘corked’ bottles (those suffering from TCA contamination) when using an inventory of screw-top products.

For Wine Producers

  • Large bulk wines and wines that are meant to be consumed within 12 months of bottling are great candidates for screw-tops.  Consumers purchasing wines in this category tend to be less picky about the closure type.  These wines can be more easily marketed towards the casual chain dining establishments
  • Expensive wines, premium wines and special vintages designed for aging are going to benefit them most from cork closures.  The product quality will be improved, so will the service experience of consumers who open these wines at special occasions and full service dinners out. The perceived quality and rareness of real corks can influence the brand placement of a product.  The use of a cork and the associated experience with this for the customer will help them recognize and associate a brand as a premium product.
  • Producers may want to consider bottling premium wines with both closures – screw-tops for use at home, and cork closures to market through the trade channels for restaurant dining and cellaring purposes.

 

 

Additional Research

            Following the conclusions of this report, further research would be beneficial for a better understanding of this topic.  A study rating the wine service experience of customers having cork versus screw-top closure would be very useful from the wine producer and restaurateur points of view.

            A consumer survey determining the buying preferences of wine drinkers for special events, wines for home and those consumed while dining out would also show more conclusively how people may prefer cork over screw-tops in certain settings.

            A customer preference experiment can be easily conducted by independent operations by segmenting their menu into two categories: screw-top and cork closure listings.  By tracking the preferences a restaurateur can tailor their menu to get the right mix of wines to meet their customers’ expectations.


Service Blueprint: Screw-top Closure

 

 

Host Okays or Rejects wine

 

 

 

 

 

Host evaluates wine and either accepts or rejects

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ý

 

 

 

 

 

Ý

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Host orders wine

Þ

Wine is presented to Host

Þ

Seal is broken at the base and cap removed

Þ

Bottle is wiped

Þ

1.5 ounces are poured to evaluate

Þ

Wines are poured for all guests

 

 

 

 

 

ß

Ý

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ß

Ý

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bottle is retrieved from cellar

Ý

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ß

Ý

 

 

 

 

Steps of Service

 

 

 

 

 

Napkin is prepared

 

 

 

 

 

Steps of Service with Guest Participation

 

 

 

 

 

ÞÝ

 

 

 

 

Steps of Service that are Not Visible

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Service Blueprint: Cork Closure

 

 

Host Okays or Rejects wine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Host inspects cork

 

 

 

Host evaluates wine and either accepts or rejects

 

 

 

 

Ý

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ý

 

 

 

Ý

 

 

Host Orders Wine

Þ

Wine is presented to Host

Þ

Foil is cut and removed from bottle

Þ

Bottle is wiped

Þ

Cork is removed from bottle

Þ

Cork is presented to Host

Þ

Bottle is wiped

Þ

1.5 ounces are poured to evaluate

Þ

Wines are poured for all guests

ß

Ý

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ß

Ý

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bottle is retrieved from cellar

Ý

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ß

Ý

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corkscrew and Napkin are prepared

ÞÝ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


References

Anonymous. (1999). How long to age wines. Cellarnotes.net. Retrieved November 27, 2008 from: www.cellarnotes.net/howlongtohold.htm

 

Ansbacher, C. (2006, June). Building a stellar cellar. Chief Executive,(218), 58-60.  Retrieved November 30, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1077860671).

 

Beavers, K. (2008, Aug 29). The question of screw cap part II. Wine Food and Life. [electronic version]. Retreived November 20, 2008 from: http://evwg.blogspot.com/2008/08/question-of-screw-cap-part-ii.html

 

Blakeman, P. (2006). Consumer perceptions of screw top wine closures. Niagara College Canada [electronic version]. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from: www.niagaracollege.ca/research/pdf/rposter_peter_blakeman.pdf

 

Bon-wine. (2005). Wine consumption to grow 15.4% to 2010. China Wines Information Website. Retrieved November 28, 2008 from: http://www.wines-info.com/html/2007-04/194/20074129533375.html

 

Brown, C. (2008). Young Winos: The millennial generation is a thirsty one. Los Angeles Times [electronic version]. Retrieved November 14, 2008 from: www.latimes.com/features/food/la-fo-youngwine12mar12,1,3020653.story

 

Clarke, D.W. (2002). Evolving the corkscrew: a TRIZ-based hypothesis. Applied Innovation Alliance. Retrieved November 27, 2008 from: http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2003/02/e/05.pdf

 

Evans, D., LeLarge, G. (1996). When good corks go bad. Valencia Wine Co. Retrieved December 1, 2008 from: www.valenciawine.com/news.asp?article=5

 

Gaiter, D.J., Brecher, J. (2002, May 17). Tastings: Nachos, Wings and Dom Perignon. Wall Street Journal  (Eastern Edition),  p. W.1.  Retrieved November 20, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 120057123).

 

Hall, S. (2000). A little wine makes everything taste better. Travel Lady Magazine [electronic version]. Retrieved December 1, 2008 from: http://www.travellady.com/Issues/Issue53/winecooking.htm

 

Haverkorn, M. (2008). Top wines in US restaurants. Wine & Spirits Daily. Retrieved November 30, 2008 from: http://www.winespiritsdaily.com/2008/09/top-wines-in-us-restaurants.html

 

Heeger, J, (2007, Feb 8). Boomer, millenials boost wine consumption. Napavalleyregister.com. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from: http://www.napavalleyregister.com/articles/2007/02/08/features/food_and_wine/doc45cb2cbf0297f266374068.txt

 

Hochstein, M. (1992). Wineries slowly move toward man-made closures. Nation’s Restaurant News. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3190/is_/ai_12667767

 

Hutchcraft, C. (2001, August). Put a cap on it: Australian study floats cork questions. Restaurants & Institutions, 111(20), 18.  Retrieved November 20, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 78447429).

 

Kapnick, S. (2006, October). Look, ma, no cork! Time, 168(14), F17 [electronic version].  Retrieved November 29, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1136140041).

 

Karl, J. (2007, October 3). Business bookshelf: How to end a bottleneck. Wall Street Journal  (Eastern Edition),  p. D.10.  Retrieved November 28, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1351607721).

 

MacLean, N. (2008). Nat decants – red, white and drunk all over. NatalieMacLean.com. Retrieved December 1, 2008 from: http://www.nataliemaclean.com/view.asp?id=182

 

Nalley, R. (2005, December). Put that wine away. Forbes FYI, FYI(6), 099.  Retrieved November 30, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 938048271).

 

Professor’s House. (2007). Synthetic versus natural wine corks. Professor’s House. Retrieved November 14, 2008 from: http://www.professorshouse.com/food-beverage/wine-and-spirits/synthetic-vs-natural-wine-cork.aspx

 

Reiss, S. (2005). Unscrew a bottle of your favorite wine tonight. Wineeducation.com. Retrieved November 27, 2008 from: http://blog.wineeducation.com/2005/01/unscrew-bottle-of-your-favorite-wine.html

 

Shea, L. (2008) History of cork. Wineintro.com. Retrieved November 27, 2008 from: www.wineintro.com/history/glassware/cork.html

 

Wine Council of Ontario. (2007). Enjoying Ontario wines in restaurants. Wine Council of Ontario. Retrieved December 1, 2008 from: http://winesofontario.org/html/ent_enjoy.htm

 

References

Anonymous. (1999). How long to age wines. Cellarnotes.net. Retrieved November 27, 2008 from: www.cellarnotes.net/howlongtohold.htm

 

Ansbacher, C. (2006, June). Building a stellar cellar. Chief Executive,(218), 58-60.  Retrieved November 30, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1077860671).

 

Beavers, K. (2008, Aug 29). The question of screw cap part II. Wine Food and Life. [electronic version]. Retreived November 20, 2008 from: http://evwg.blogspot.com/2008/08/question-of-screw-cap-part-ii.html

 

Blakeman, P. (2006). Consumer perceptions of screw top wine closures. Niagara College Canada [electronic version]. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from: www.niagaracollege.ca/research/pdf/rposter_peter_blakeman.pdf

 

Bon-wine. (2005). Wine consumption to grow 15.4% to 2010. China Wines Information Website. Retrieved November 28, 2008 from: http://www.wines-info.com/html/2007-04/194/20074129533375.html

 

Brown, C. (2008). Young Winos: The millennial generation is a thirsty one. Los Angeles Times [electronic version]. Retrieved November 14, 2008 from: www.latimes.com/features/food/la-fo-youngwine12mar12,1,3020653.story

 

Clarke, D.W. (2002). Evolving the corkscrew: a TRIZ-based hypothesis. Applied Innovation Alliance. Retrieved November 27, 2008 from: http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2003/02/e/05.pdf

 

Evans, D., LeLarge, G. (1996). When good corks go bad. Valencia Wine Co. Retrieved December 1, 2008 from: www.valenciawine.com/news.asp?article=5

 

Gaiter, D.J., Brecher, J. (2002, May 17). Tastings: Nachos, Wings and Dom Perignon. Wall Street Journal  (Eastern Edition),  p. W.1.  Retrieved November 20, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 120057123).

 

Hall, S. (2000). A little wine makes everything taste better. Travel Lady Magazine [electronic version]. Retrieved December 1, 2008 from: http://www.travellady.com/Issues/Issue53/winecooking.htm

 

Haverkorn, M. (2008). Top wines in US restaurants. Wine & Spirits Daily. Retrieved November 30, 2008 from: http://www.winespiritsdaily.com/2008/09/top-wines-in-us-restaurants.html

 

Heeger, J, (2007, Feb 8). Boomer, millenials boost wine consumption. Napavalleyregister.com. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from: http://www.napavalleyregister.com/articles/2007/02/08/features/food_and_wine/doc45cb2cbf0297f266374068.txt

 

Hochstein, M. (1992). Wineries slowly move toward man-made closures. Nation’s Restaurant News. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3190/is_/ai_12667767

 

Hutchcraft, C. (2001, August). Put a cap on it: Australian study floats cork questions. Restaurants & Institutions, 111(20), 18.  Retrieved November 20, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 78447429).

 

Kapnick, S. (2006, October). Look, ma, no cork! Time, 168(14), F17 [electronic version].  Retrieved November 29, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1136140041).

 

Karl, J. (2007, October 3). Business bookshelf: How to end a bottleneck. Wall Street Journal  (Eastern Edition),  p. D.10.  Retrieved November 28, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1351607721).

 

MacLean, N. (2008). Nat decants – red, white and drunk all over. NatalieMacLean.com. Retrieved December 1, 2008 from: http://www.nataliemaclean.com/view.asp?id=182

 

Nalley, R. (2005, December). Put that wine away. Forbes FYI, FYI(6), 099.  Retrieved November 30, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 938048271).

 

Professor’s House. (2007). Synthetic versus natural wine corks. Professor’s House. Retrieved November 14, 2008 from: http://www.professorshouse.com/food-beverage/wine-and-spirits/synthetic-vs-natural-wine-cork.aspx

 

Reiss, S. (2005). Unscrew a bottle of your favorite wine tonight. Wineeducation.com. Retrieved November 27, 2008 from: http://blog.wineeducation.com/2005/01/unscrew-bottle-of-your-favorite-wine.html

 

Shea, L. (2008) History of cork. Wineintro.com. Retrieved November 27, 2008 from: www.wineintro.com/history/glassware/cork.html

 

Wine Council of Ontario. (2007). Enjoying Ontario wines in restaurants. Wine Council of Ontario. Retrieved December 1, 2008 from: http://winesofontario.org/html/ent_enjoy.htm